Tuesday, December 26, 2006

Design of experiments

The experiments conducted in accord with the scientific method have several features in common. The design of experiments attempts to balance the requirements and limitations of the field of science in which one works so that the experiment can provide the best conclusion about the hypothesis being tested.

In some sciences, such as physics and chemistry, it is relatively easy to meet the requirements that all measurements be made objectively, and that all conditions can be kept controlled across experimental trials. On the other hand, in other cases such as biology, and medicine, it is often hard to ensure that the conditions of an experiment are performed consistently; and in the social sciences, it may even be difficult to determine a method for measuring the outcomes of an experiment in an objective manner.

For this reason, sciences such as physics and several other fields of natural science are sometimes informally referred to as "hard sciences", while social sciences are sometimes informally referred to as "soft sciences"; in an attempt to capture the idea that objective measurements are often far easier in the former, and far more difficult in the latter.

Monday, December 18, 2006


Sinkholes, also known as sinks, shakeholes or dolina, and cenotes, are formed by the collapse of cave roofs and are a feature of landscapes that are based on limestone bedrock. The result is a depression in the surface topography. This may range anywhere from a small, gentle earth-lined depression, to a large, cliff-lined chasm. Most often there is a small area of rock exposure near or at the bottom of a sinkhole, and a patent opening into the cave below may or may not be visible. In the case of exceptionally large sinkholes, such as Cedar Sink at Mammoth Cave National Park, there may actually be a stream or river flowing into the bottom of the sink from one side and out the other side.

Sinkholes often form in low areas where they form drainage outlets for a closed local surface drainage basin. They may also form in currently high and dry locations. Florida has been known for having frequent sinkholes, especially in the central part of the state.

Tuesday, December 12, 2006

Temple at Uppsala

The Temple at Uppsala was a semi-legendary cultic site in Gamla Uppsala, near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was formed to worship the Norse gods of prehistoric times. The temple is sparsely recognized, but it is referenced in the Norse sagas and Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum. It is also described by Adam of Bremen. These images might, however, be influenced and biased by the Biblical stories and recollections of the Ancient Roman temples.

The chief controversies regarding the temple focus specifically on determining where in Old Uppsala the temple was located and whether or not it was a building. Some believe that the temple was puzzled with the hall of the Swedish kings. Churches were usually built and consecrated on top of older pagan temples and other sites that witnessed ritual behavior. During an excavation of the present church, the remains of one, and possibly several, large wooden buildings were found beneath the church's foundation.Snorri Sturluson wrote that the temple had been built by the god Freyr, who allegedly used to reside at Uppsala. Snorri and Saxo Grammaticus both claimed that it was Freyr who began the tradition of human sacrifices at the temple site. The Norse sagas, Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen describe the sacrifices at Uppsala as popular festivals that attracted people from all over Sweden. Many of these sources provide accounts of human sacrifice for the Norse gods.

Monday, December 04, 2006


The Religio Romana constituted the main religion of the city in ancient times. However, a number of other religions and imported secrecy cults remained represented within its ever-expanding limitations, counting Judaism, whose presence in the city dates sponsor from the Roman Republic and was sometimes compulsorily confined to the Roman Ghetto, as well as Christianity. In spite of initial persecutions, by the early 4th century, Christianity had turn into so widespread that it was legalized in 313 by Emperor Constantine I, and later made executive religion of the Roman Empire in 380 by Emperor Theodosius I, allowing it to increase further and ultimately wholly replace the declining Religio Romana.

Rome became the most excellent Christian city based on the custom that Saint Peter and Saint Paul were martyred in the city throughout the 1st century, coupled with the city's political significance. The Bishop of Rome, later identified as the Pope, claimed dominance over all Bishops and consequently all Christians on the foundation that he is the successor of Saint Peter, upon whom Jesus built his Church; his status has been enhanced since 313 during contributions by Roman emperors and patricians, including the Lateran Palace and patriarchal basilicas, as well as the visibly growing influence of the Church over the failing civil regal authority. Papal authority has been exercised over the centuries with unreliable degrees of success, at period triggering divisions amongst Christians, until the present.

Monday, November 27, 2006

Clothing maintenance

Clothing, once manufactured, suffers physical bother both from within and from without. The human body inside sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, damp, abrasion, dirt, and other indignities afflict the garment. Bedbugs and lice take up residence in clothing seams. Well-worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, will smell, itch, look shabby, and lose functionality.

In past times, restoration was an art. A careful tailor or seamstress could fix rips with thread raveled from hems and seam limits so skillfully that the darn was practically invisible. When the raw fabric cloth was worth more than labor, it made sense to use labor in saving it. Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass manufactured clothing is less expensive than the time it would take to repair it. Many people wish to buy a new piece of clothing rather than to waste their time mending old clothes. But the thrifty still replace zippers and buttons and stitch up ripped hems.

Wednesday, November 08, 2006

Alternative views
Stonehenge's fame comes not only from its archaeological significance or potential early astronomical role but also in its less tangible effect on visitors, what Christopher Chippindale describes as "the physical sensation of the place", something that transcends the rational, scientific view of the monument. This manifests itself in the spiritual role of the site for many different groups and a belief that no single scientific explanation can do justice to it as a symbol of the great achievement of the ancient Britons and as a symbol of something that continues to confound mainstream archaeology.Some people claim to have seen UFOs in the area, perhaps connected with the military installations around Warminster, that has led to ideas over it being an extraterrestrial landing site. Alfred Watkins found three ley lines running through the site and others have employed numerology dowsing or geomancy to reach diverse conclusions regarding the site's power and purpose. New Age and neo-pagan beliefs might see Stonehenge as a sacred place of worship which can conflict with its more mainstream role as an archaeological site, tourist attraction, or marketing tool. Post-processualist archaeologists might consider that treating Stonehenge as a computer or observatory is to apply modern concepts from our own technology-driven era back into the past. Even the role of indigenous peoples in archaeology, rarely applied in Western Europe, has created a new function for the site as a symbol of Welsh nationalism.The significance of the 'ownership' of Stonehenge in terms of the differing meanings and interpretations held by the many orthodox and unorthodox stakeholders in the site has been increasingly apparent in recent decades. Researchers Jenny Blain and Robert J. Wallis have pointed to the huge variety of views which show the continued and growing importance of Stonehenge today, as symbol and 'Icon of Britishness'; and indicate also the increased awareness of pasts by many people with no training in archaeology or heritage. For many, Stonehenge and other ancient monuments form part of the 'living landscape' which holds its own stories and which is there to be engaged with as people mark the seasons of the year. Today's mythology around Stonehenge includes the recent history of the Battle of the Beanfield and the previous Free festivals. Stonehenge has not one meaning but many. Today, curators English Heritage facilitate 'managed open access' at solstices and equinoxes, with some disputes over the days on which these fall. Blain and Wallis argue that issues over access relate not only to physical presence at the stones but to interpretations of past and validity of 'new-indigenous' and pagan usages in the present and such 'alternative' views have been central in alerting public awareness to the issues of roads, tunnels and landscape, noted below.

Wednesday, November 01, 2006

Milky way
The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy of the Local Group. Though the Milky Way is but one of billions of galaxies in the universe, the Galaxy has special significance to people as it is the home of the Solar System. Democritus was the first known person to claim that the Milky Way consists of distant stars.The term "milky" originates from the hazy band of white light appearing across the celestial sphere visible from Earth, which is included of stars and other material lying within the galactic plane. The galaxy shows brightest in the direction of Sagittarius, towards the galactic center. Relative to the celestial equator, the Milky Way passes as far north as the assembly of Cassiopeia and as remote south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic relative to the galactic plane. The truth that the Milky Way divides the night sky into two roughly equal hemispheres indicates that the solar system lies close to the galactic plane.

Wednesday, October 04, 2006

Interpersonal relationships are social relations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. They vary in conflicting levels of intimacy and
sharing, implying the discovery or establishment of common ground, and may be centered on something(s) shared in common. The study of relationships is
of anxiety to sociology, psychology and anthropology.The discovery or establishment of ordinary ground between individuals is a fundamental component for lasting interpersonal relationships. Loss of common
ground, which may occur over time, may tend to end interpersonal relationships.For each relationship type, necessary skills are needed, and without these skills higher relationships are not possible. Systemic coaching advocates a
hierarchy of relationships, from friendship to worldwide order. Expertise in each relationship type in this hierarchy requires the skills of all preceding
relationship types. Interpersonal relationships through consanguinity and affinity can persist despite the absence of love, affection, or frequent ground. When
these relationships are in prohibited degrees, sexual familiarity in them would be the taboo of incest.Marriage and civil union are relationships unbreakable and regularized by their legal sanction to be "respectable" building blocks of society. In the United
States the de-criminalization of homosexual sexual dealings in the landmark Supreme Court decision, Lawrence v. Texas (2003) facilitated the
"mainstreaming" of gay extended term relationships, and broached the option of the legalization of same-sex marriages in that country.

Sunday, August 13, 2006

Dogs, like humans, are extremely social animals and this similarity in their overall behavioral pattern accounts for their trainability, playfulness, and aptitude to fit into human households and social situations. This likeness has earned dogs a unique position in the kingdom of interspecies relationships. The faithfulness and devotion that dogs demonstrate as part of their usual instincts as pack animals closely mimics the human idea of love and friendship, leading many dog holders to view their pets as full-fledged family members. Conversely, dogs seem to view their human friends as members of their pack, and make few, if any, divisions between their owners and fellow dogs. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often skilled as working dogs. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide variety of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. Dogs have lived with and with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the single sobriquet ‘Man's best friend.’ Conversely, some cultures regard as dogs to be unclean. In some cultures, certain types of dog may be used as food.